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The Sixth Framework Programme (FWP6), while representing a radical shift in approach to EU research funding, has also been designed to fit in with previous Framework Programmes (FWPs). Its objective continues to be the development of a true European scientific community equipped with the best skills and know-how, and to support scientific and technical work of the highest quality, conducted through transnational projects benefiting from mobile researchers. But the success of past programmes needs to be reinforced, in particular the networks and projects supported by the European Union.

FWP6 will distribute €17.5 billion to the parties involved in European research and technological development (RTD), but its aims go far beyond mere co-financing of research projects.

This programme provides a coherent and ambitious pan-European framework for supporting RTD as part of EU research policy and constitutes a five-year strategic plan for the period 2002-2006. During this period, it will stimulate transnational collaboration in research, particularly between industry and universities, and in the establishment of networks of excellence.

FWP6 will also help to establish a conducive environment in Europe for innovation to flourish. This means encouraging technology transfer, ensuring the availability of venture capital, providing greater protection for intellectual property rights, and developing human resources. Increased resources will also be devoted to encourage SME participation in all the Framework Programme activities.

The Sixth Framework Programme represents the third largest operational budget line within the EU’s overall budget, after the Common Agricultural Policy and Structural Funds. This is 3.9% of the EU’s overall 2001 budget (or 3.4% of 2002) and 5.4% of all 2001 public (non-military) research spending in Europe.

FP6 will be instrumental in achieving the March 2000 Lisbon European Council goal of turning Europe into the world’s most competitive knowledge-based economy by 2010. It will also greatly contribute to the creation of the European Research Area (ERA), a true European internal market for research and knowledge, where EU and national R&D efforts are better integrated.

To reach the necessary critical mass at EU level and to pool together both financial and intellectual resources, FP6 will introduce new instruments, such as networks of excellence and integrated projects.

In order to achieve this more effectively and, in turn, to contribute to both the creation of the European Research Area and to innovation, the Sixth Framework Programme will be structured around three headings:

• focusing and integrating EU research
• structuring the European Research Area
• strengthening the foundations of the European Research Area

The activities under these three headings will be instrumental in the integration of research efforts and actions on a European scale, as well as contributing to the structuring of the various dimensions of the European Research Area. The coordination of activities carried out under these headings will be ensured.


In AIDE, KITE is involved mostly in Sub Project SP1: Behavioural Effects and Driver-Vehicle-Environment Modelling.

The general objective of this sub-project is to develop a basic understanding of the DVE interaction and the behavioural effects of IVIS and ADAS and develop this into a model and computer simulation for predicting these effects.

The sub-project will also develop the general conceptual framework to be used throughout the project, including the definition of taxonomies for IVIS/ADAS functions and their behavioural effects In particular, KITE is involved in WP 1.3: Driver-Vehicle-Environment Simulation and Validation.

In this WP, the model of the Driver, Vehicle and Environemnt (DVE) will be implemented in a computer simulation for predicting behavioural effects. A main end application of the model and simulation for prediction of the behavioural effects associated with driver assistance- and information functions. The simulation will be a useful tool for evaluation of new HMI concepts and ADAS and IVIS functions early in product development.

The simulation could also be used, in combination with accident analysis, for taking behavioural effects into account when predicting the actual safety benefit of different driver assistance functions.


The simulation approach called SSDRIVE (Simple Simulation of Driver Performance) aims at enabling the prediction of possible Driver-Vehicle-Environment (DVE) interactions for safety studies and risk analyses particularly focused on driver’s cognitive behaviour and performance.

The theoretical models that underlie the simulation are sufficiently simple and generic to capture the fundamental theories for each of the elements of the DVE system, especially with respect to the “Driver” model. The reference approaches can be easily found in the literature (Rasmussen, 1986; Michon, 1985; Carsten, 2007).

Model and simulation characteristics

The simulation of driver behaviour shows the following characteristics:

  • The model enables the rapid assessments of DVE interactions with different configurations, so as to evaluate prototypes of different conceptual nature
  • The dynamic interactions between driver, vehicle and environment is fully included in the simulation
  • Cognitive aspects of behaviour and behavioural performances are considered, including emotional/attitudinal aspects
  • The model can be adapted to different types of Advanced Driver Assistance, and In Vehichle Information Systems (ADAS-IVIS)
  • The model enables to account for possible driver errors, based on classical theories of error generation mechanism (Reason, 1990)
  • The model and simulation are developed in such a configuration to facilitate the evolution towards a “real-time” simulation approach of the DVE system

As the overall requirements of the simulation associated to the driver model are of being predictive, simple and fast running, accounting for dynamic interactions, human errors, and adaptive behaviour, a very simple model (Cacciabue, 1998) has been implemented that respects the principles of the Information Processing System paradigm. The model is focused on four basic functions, namely:

  • Perception of sensorial inputs (signals) generated by the Vehicle and Environment Interpretation of relative information
  • Formulation of goals and intentions and/or selection of tasks to be carried out (Planning)
  • and finally Execution of actions
  • The Driver model has been developed taking into account a set of (measurable) independent variables related to the dynamic conditions and of parameters that influence behaviour. Five parameters have been selected for the model under development, namely:

  • Attitudes/personality (ATT): associated with each driver
  • Experience/competence (EXP): each driver
  • Task Demand (TD): dynamic parameter that may change during the run of a simulation as result of DVE interaction
  • Driver State (DS): dynamic parameter that may change during the run of a simulation as result of DVE interaction
  • Situation Awareness/Alertness (SA): dynamic parameter that may change during the run of a simulation as result of DVE interaction
  • These five parameters are evaluated on the basis of observable/calculated variables at each time interval of the DVE interaction. Fuzzy logic and the relative correlations are applied. Decision making processes, mainly planning and error making, depend on the dynamic evolution of these 5 parameters and on traffic and vehicle behaviour.

    Software implementation

    The software architecture that sustains the SSDRIVE tool is based on DELTA3D and LUA as supporting platform and scripting language.

    Utilising the options and means offered by these tools the following items are described and accounted for in the simulation:

  • Obstacles, i.e., elements that are located along the track, either other vehicles or moving objects (pedestrians, etc.), in either lanes or directions. This contributes to the creation of the traffic environment
  • Car, i.e., the vehicle driven by the simulated driver
  • Driver, i.e., the most sophisticated element of the SSDRIVE tool
  • References

    Cacciabue, P.C. (1998). Modelling and Simulation of Human Behaviour in System Control. Springer-Verlag, London, UK.

    Carsten, O., (2007). From driver models to modelling the driver: What do we really need to know about the driver? In P.C. Cacciabue (Ed.), Modelling Driver Behaviour in Automotive Environments. Springer-Verlag, London, pp. 106-122.

    Michon, J.A. (1985). A critical review of driver behaviour models: What do we know? what should we do? In L.A Evans and R.C. Schwing (Eds.)
    Human Behaviour AND Traffic Safety. (pp. 487-525). New York: Plenum Press.

    Rasmussen, J. (1986). Information processes and human-machine interaction. An approach to cognitive engineering. North Holland. Oxford.

    Reason, J. (1990). Human Error Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.




    In HILAS, KITE is involved mostly in Strands 2 (Operations) and Strand 4 (Maintenance).

    In particular:

    • WP 2.3 for the development of an integrated model for process analysis and performance. The methodologies for addressing human factors inprocess analysis and redesign and for performance monitoring will be integrated into a single set of methodological procedures which support the full range of tasks addressed in this strand.
    • WP 4.1 to identify requirements and specifications for the integrated system for structuring the maintenance processes. This system will then be developed in a second phase of the Project.

    In SENSATION, KITE is specifically involved in the Subproject SP 4 Industrial Applications, and in particular in WP4.6 Industrial processes supervision Pilots.

    The general objective of this sub-project is to integrate SP2 sensors in multisensorial systems and use them to develop human operator hypovigilance detection and prediction to promote safety, comfort and Quality of Life SP4 includes three major areas of work:

    1. Development of hypovigilance detection, prediction correlation and operator warning algorithms (WP2.1, WP2.2, WP2,4, WP2.5).
    2. Development of multi-sensorial systems for hypovigilance detection(WP2.2), prediction (WP2.4), sleep management (WP2.3) and operator warning (WP2.5).
    3. Verification of the developed applications in a series of industrial Pilots
      (WP4.6) and specification of future research needs (WP4.7).

    Main expected results are:

    • Clear selection of industrial applications to be realised, and their
      aetiology, taking into account expected impacts, technological feasibility, cost-effectiveness and overall application viability.
    • Identification of one global system or specific systems for different situations and/or applications and/or environments, able to detect human sleep, prolonged inattention and stress within few seconds of their occurrence (hypovigilance detection).
    • Improved and personalised sleep management support services.
    • Real-time hypovigilance prediction system and several support algorithms for its adaptation, according to the task.

    In MODURBAN, KITE is specifically involved in the Subproject MODSYSTEM, and in Workpackage 23 Safety and availability conformity assessment process.

    Within this WP the contribution of KITE focuses on the Human Factor aspects, and in particular for: Task 23.2: Human factor impact on functional and technical prescriptions:

    • Conceptual framework of human behaviour and the acceptable
      related allocation of responsibilities between staff and system.
    • Development and integration of an adequate module for Human Factors Risk Assessment for consideration of all aspect of Human Machine Interaction within a safety perspective.
    • Such model and methodology will:
      • Be able to operate “stand alone”.
      • Be integrated within the generic model of the transportation system. Task 23.3 Feedback of experience.
    • Identification of existing bodies of data on accidents/incidents within the operators of urban guided systems.
    • Definition of data necessary for sustaining the module for Human Factors Risk Assessment.
    • Development of tool for data collection about non-conformity events and anomalies discovered during normal operations.
    • Field studies and data collection.
    • Input to the human factor risk assessment module.
    • Input to the transportation system safety assessment model.

    In RANKERS, KITE is involved mostly in Work Package 2: Analysis of road safety infrastructures and WP 4: Recommendations for safe road infrastructures.

    WP 2: The goal of WP 2 is to analyse the three road safety pillars in identified road segments, taking into account specific environmental and traffic conditions, through field testing with an experimental sensor vehicle. After the analysis phase this WP aims to recommend a set of safety measures as a modification of actual guidelines for the redesign of existing roads, constituting an extensive catalogue of road infrastructure safety recommendations. KITE is responsible for Statistical analysis and attainment of results for the identification of problems in the performance of Road infrastructure.

    WP 4: This WP intends to develop recommendations for road signs and infrastructure supported by field and simulator studies, and translated into a directly infield application tool in the form of:

    • Road Safety Index.
    • Ranking of Remedial Measures.

    In VIRTHUALIS, KITE is involved throughout the entire Project in several Work Packages.

    In particular:

    • WP1: characterises the end-users’ applications.
    • WP2: is devoted to the defining of a common standard among partners forallowing a transfer of the tools.
    • WP3: is devoted to the defining of a suitable Human Factors methodology.
    • WP4: will envision the impact of HF Knowledge and the associated VEs on theperformance of the three safety actions.
    • WP6: builds the different tools of the new technology which eventually will be assembled to constitute the prototype.
    • WP8: will have the role of adapting the technology to the needs of SMEs.
    HORIZON 2020